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METRONIDAZOLE (metronidazole injection, USP) Indications and Usage

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Treatment of Anaerobic Infections

Metronidazole Injection, USP is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria. Indicated surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with metronidazole therapy. In a mixed aerobic and anaerobic infection, antibiotics appropriate for the treatment of the aerobic infection should be used in addition to metronidazole.

Metronidazole is effective in Bacteroides fragilis infections resistant to clindamycin, chloramphenicol and penicillin.

Intra-abdominal Infections, including peritonitis, intra-abdominal abscess and liver abscess, caused by Bacteroides species including the B. fragilis group (B. fragilis, B. distasonis, B. ovatus, B. thetaiotaomicron, B. vulgatus). Clostridium species, Eubacterium species, Peptococcus species, and Peptostreptococcus species.

Skin and Skin Structure Infections caused by Bacteroides species including B. fragilis group, Clostridium species, Peptococcus species, Peptostreptococcus species and Fusobacterium species.

Gynecologic Infections, including endometritis, endomyometritis, tubo-ovarian abscess, and post-surgical vaginal cuff infection, caused by Bacteroides species including the B. fragilis group, Clostridium species, Peptococcus species, Peptostreptococcus species and Fusobacterium species.

Bacterial Septicemia caused by Bacteroides species including the B. fragilis group and Clostridium species.

Bone and Joint Infections, as adjunctive therapy, caused by Bacteroides species including the B. fragilis group.

Central Nervous System (CNS) Infections, including meningitis and brain abscess, caused by Bacteroides species including the B. fragilis group.

Lower Respiratory Tract Infections, including pneumonia, empyema, and lung abscess, caused by Bacteroides species including the B. fragilis group.

Endocarditis caused by Bacteroides species including the B. fragilis group.

Prophylaxis

The prophylactic administration of Metronidazole Injection, USP preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively may reduce the incidence of postoperative infection in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery which is classified as contaminated or potentially contaminated.

Prophylactic use of Metronidazole Injection, USP should be discontinued within 12 hours after surgery. If there are signs of infection, specimens for cultures should be obtained for the identification of the causative organism(s) so that appropriate therapy may be given (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of metronidazole and other antibacterial drugs, metronidazole should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

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